Sale and Assignment of LLC Membership Interests

Transfers from Member to Member or to Non-Member Third Parties

by David J. Willis J.D., LL.M.


This article addresses legal points to consider when conveying a membership interest in a limited liability company from one individual to another. It does not address the initial issuance of such interests when the LLC is formed, nor sales of membership interests by an existing LLC to incoming members.

Additionally, this article addresses absolute assignments (full and final transfers) rather than collateral assignments (made only as security for a loan) which are a different topic entirely.

Assignments of this type may follow the execution of a letter of intent which provides for a due-diligence period. This article does not cover the contents of such an LOI but does address issues that should be considered by a prospective assignee in conducting due diligence. An LOI will often make reference to specific due diligence steps that a buyer will be permitted to take.

After covering definitions and applicable law, we will turn to principal points that should be considered in negotiating and drafting an assignment of LLC membership interest.


Relevant Statutory Definitions

Applicable law is found in the Business Organizations Code (BOC):

Bus. Orgs. Code Section 1.002. DEFINITIONS

(7) “Certificated ownership interest” means an ownership interest of a domestic entity represented by a certificate issued in bearer or registered form.

(32) “Fundamental business transaction” means a merger, interest exchange, conversion, or sale of all or substantially all of an entity’s assets.

(35)(A) “Governing authority” means a person or group of persons who are entitled to manage and direct the affairs of an entity under this code and the governing documents of the entity, except that if the governing documents of the entity or this code divide the authority to manage and direct the affairs of the entity among different persons or groups of persons according to different matters, “governing authority” means the person or group of persons entitled to manage and direct the affairs of the entity with respect to a matter under the governing documents of the entity or this code.

(41) “Interest exchange” means the acquisition of an ownership or membership interest in a domestic entity as provided by Subchapter B, Chapter 10. The term does not include a merger or conversion.

(46) “Limited liability company” means an entity governed as a limited liability company under Title 3 or 7. The term includes a professional limited liability company.

(53) “Member” means: (A) in the case of a limited liability company, a person who has become, and has not ceased to be, a member in the limited liability company as provided by its governing documents or this code. . . .

(54) “Membership interest” means a member’s interest in an entity. With respect to a limited liability company, the term includes a member’s share of profits and losses or similar items and the right to receive distributions, but does not include a member’s right to participate in management.

(64) “Ownership interest” means an owner’s interest in an entity. The term includes the owner’s share of profits and losses or similar items and the right to receive distributions. The term does not include an owner’s right to participate in management.

(69-b) “Person” means an individual or a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, trust, association, or other organization, estate, government or governmental subdivision or agency, or other legal entity, or a protected series or registered series of a domestic limited liability company or foreign entity.

(87) “Uncertificated ownership interest” means an ownership interest in a domestic entity that is not represented by an instrument and is transferred by: (A) amendment of the governing documents of the entity; or (B) registration on books maintained by or on behalf of the entity for the purpose of registering transfers of ownership interests.

A well-drafted assignment of LLC membership interest will be mindful of and consistent with these statutory terms.

Statute Authorizing LLC Membership Assignments

Foundational to the idea of a sale and assignment of LLC membership interest is the legal authority to enter into such a transaction in the first place:


(a) A membership interest in a limited liability company may be wholly or partly assigned.

(b) An assignment of a membership interest in a limited liability company: (1) is not an event requiring the winding up of the company; and (2) does not entitle the assignee to: (A) participate in the management and affairs of the company; (B) become a member of the company; or (C) exercise any rights of a member of the company.

Consent by other members is required. BOC Section 101.103(s) states that a “person who, after the formation of a limited liability company, acquires directly or is assigned a membership interest in the company or is admitted as a member of the company without acquiring a membership interest becomes a member of the company on approval or consent of all of the company’s members.” BOC Section 101.105 states that a “limited liability company, after the formation of the company, may: (1) issue membership interests in the company to any person with the approval of all of the members of the company. . . .”

An additional consent requirement is found in BOC Section 101.356(c) which provides that, for the most part, “a fundamental business transaction of a limited liability company, or an action that would make it impossible for a limited liability company to carry out the ordinary business of the company, must be approved by the affirmative vote of the majority of all of the company’s members.”

Accordingly, it is advisable to accompany an assignment of membership interest with a special meeting of members that approves and ratifies the change. One or more LLC resolutions may be produced as well. All affected parties (and their spouses, even if non-members) should sign off.

What category of property is an LLC membership interest?

Regardless of the type of property owner by a limited liability company, a membership interest in the LLC is personal property:


(a) A membership interest in a limited liability company is personal property.

(a-1) A membership interest may be community property under applicable law.

(a-2) A member’s right to participate in the management and conduct of the business of the limited liability company is not community property.

(b) A member of a limited liability company or an assignee of a membership interest in a limited liability company does not have an interest in any specific property of the company.

The characterization of an LLC membership interest as personal property is important because it also signifies what it is not. For instance, it is not a real property interest even though the LLC may own real estate. It is not a negotiable instrument subject to the Uniform Commercial Code (found in Texas Business & Commerce Code Section 3.201 et seq.). Nor is a small-business LLC membership interest usually considered to be a security subject to state and federal securities laws: “An interest in a partnership or limited liability company is not a security unless it is dealt in or traded on securities exchanges or in securities markets, [and the company agreement] expressly provide[s] that it is a security . . . or it is an investment company security.” Tex. Bus. & Com. Code Sec. 8.103(c).

The foregoing applies regardless of whether the membership interest is considered certificated or uncertificated.

Statutory Qualifications for LLC Membership

Qualifications and requirements for membership in an LLC are found in the BOC:


(a) A person may be a member of or acquire a membership interest in a limited liability company unless the person lacks capacity apart from this code.

(b) A person is not required, as a condition to becoming a member of or acquiring a membership interest in a limited liability company, to:

(1) make a contribution to the company;
(2) otherwise pay cash or transfer property to the company; or
(3) assume an obligation to make a contribution or otherwise pay cash or transfer property to the company.

(c) If one or more persons own a membership interest in a limited liability company, the company agreement may provide for a person to be admitted to the company as a member without acquiring a membership interest in the company.

Rights and Duties of an Assignee


(a) A person who is assigned a membership interest in a limited liability company is entitled to:

(1) receive any allocation of income, gain, loss, deduction, credit, or a similar item that the assignor is entitled to receive to the extent the allocation of the item is assigned;
(2) receive any distribution the assignor is entitled to receive to the extent the distribution is assigned;
(3) require, for any proper purpose, reasonable information or a reasonable account of the transactions of the company; and
(4) make, for any proper purpose, reasonable inspections of the books and records of the company.

(b) An assignee of a membership interest in a limited liability company is entitled to become a member of the company on the approval of all of the company’s members.

(c) An assignee of a membership interest in a limited liability company is not liable as a member of the company until the assignee becomes a member of the company.


(a) An assignee of a membership interest in a limited liability company, after becoming a member of the company, is:

(1) entitled, to the extent assigned, to the same rights and powers granted or provided to a member of the company by the company agreement or this code;
(2) subject to the same restrictions and liabilities placed or imposed on a member of the company by the company agreement or this code; and
(3) except as provided by Subsection (b), liable for the assignor’s obligation to make contributions to the company.

(b) An assignee of a membership interest in a limited liability company, after becoming a member of the company, is not obligated for a liability of the assignor that:

(1) the assignee did not have knowledge of on the date the assignee became a member of the company; and
(2) could not be ascertained from the company agreement.

It is important to note that these statutory rights and duties are subject to “restrictions and liabilities” that may be imposed by the company agreement.


The Company Agreement

When considering a transfer of LLC membership, it is important to first check the company agreement (operating agreement) to determine if there are buy-sell provisions or a right-of-first-refusal clause that must be worked through before the membership interest can be assigned. company agreements often require that before a sale and assignment of a membership interest can occur, the interest must first be offered pro rata to the other members, and/or to the company itself, before a transfer may be made to a person who is not currently a member. Unless waived, such provisions may be accompanied by an offer period of (for example) 10, 30, or 60 days.

Buy-sell and right-of-first-refusal provisions exist so that existing LLC members do not unwillingly find themselves in business with someone they do not know.

Non-Member Spouses

Are non-member spouses involved? Like real estate, personal property in Texas is presumed to be community property. A frequent error in transfers of LLC membership interest is failure to secure the signature of an assignor-seller’s non-member spouse. The result is that the entire interest may not have been conveyed, at least not in Texas. This is no different than if a grantee in a deed accepts the conveyance without requiring execution by the grantor’s spouse; since community property is presumed, the transfer may be incomplete if the spouse does not sign off, at least in a pro forma capacity.

To say that omitting the signature of a non-member spouse can drive subsequent disputes would be an understatement. Even though BOC Section 101.108 provides that a non-member spouse of an assignee may not assert control over the company, the potential for awkward and potentially disastrous disruption remains. Consider the case of a withdrawing member who is contemplating divorce but has not yet revealed this to other members who may want to buy his LLC membership interest. Will the assignment get tangled up in the parties’ divorce?

As is the case in transfers of real estate, it is common for sellers of an LLC membership interest to argue that the spouse should not be required to sign the assignment because the property transferred is a business asset rather than a part of the homestead. Real estate lawyers hear such excuses all the time. Other reasons may be given (“My wife is in China”). None of these excuses should be allowed to carry any weight unless the membership interest has been lawfully converted into separate property by a written partition agreement according to Section 4.102 et seq. of the Family Code.

What will be the accounting consequences? Is timing an issue?

There will likely be accounting consequences as a result of transferring an LLC membership interest. BOC Section 101.201 partially addresses this issue, stating “The profits and losses of a limited liability company shall be allocated to each member of the company on the basis of the agreed value of the contributions made by each member, as stated in the company’s records. . . .” This rule will apply unless the members collectively agree otherwise.

Attention should be given to the effective date of the assignment, since the transfer date may have more than one level of significance. It is advisable to select an effective date or record date for the assignment that facilitates easier calculation of profits and losses, or at least does not unduly complicate that calculation.

Will the membership interest pass a due-diligence inspection?

The issues referred to above are part of a larger group of due-diligence considerations that may concern a prospective buyer, which brings us to the due-diligence checklist in the next section.


Due Diligence Checklist

The following is a partial list of items that should be of concern to a prospective assignee-buyer of an LLC Membership Interest:

(1) Valuation. Most small-business assignments of LLC membership interest occur among insiders who are already acquainted with the company’s assets, liabilities, management, and operations. For potential assignees who do not fall in this category, the question of valuation arises—not just valuation of the membership interest itself but valuation of the LLC as a whole, since the two are effectively inseparable.

Several articles could be written on how to evaluate and appraise a business; suffice it to say that there should be some rational basis for the asking price that can be independently confirmed by looking at the company’s finances and assets. Certain numbers will be hard (real property and bank accounts) and others will be soft (marketing strategy, proprietary information, and value of the brand).

If assets include real properties, an evaluation of value may include appraisals by licensed appraisers or the less-formal alternative of a broker price opinion (BPO). It is impressive if a real estate investment firm has an inventory of 30 rental properties; it is less so if half the properties are drowning in deferred maintenance. Numbers guys may be satisfied with financials and a spreadsheet; traditionalists will want to physically inspect the properties as part of the due-diligence process.

(2) Good Standing. It is important to verify that the LLC and the assignor (if a registered entity) are in good standing with the secretary of state and the comptroller. If not, they do not have the legal capacity to do business, which could potentially make execution of an LLC membership assignment invalid.

(3) Core LLC Documents. A prospective assignee-buyer will want to see core LLC documents including the certificate of formation; the certificate of filing (the secretary of state’s approval); the minutes of the first organizational meeting of members along with subsequent minutes of special meetings (if any) and annual meetings; company resolutions or grants of authority; the company agreement, as currently amended or restated; and any membership certificates that may have been issued (or at least a record of same).

Also: where are the official LLC records kept? Who is responsible for keeping them, and is access readily available? Is there a company book, i.e., a binder containing these? Failure of an LLC to keep organized and complete records is a warning sign for a potential assignee. This is true regardless of and aside from any statutory requirements for LLC record keeping.

A vital object of an assignee’s investigation should be the company agreement. The company agreement is essentially a partnership agreement among LLC members, so it will directly bind a prospective assignee. Is it valid? Is it a legal document of substance or is it a three-page printout from the internet that is not even relevant to Texas? Are provisions of the company agreement compatible with the intentions and goals of the assignee? What limitations does the company agreement impose (for example, restrictions on transfer of membership interests)? Can one easily re-sell the membership interest or are there hoops to jump through?

(4) Managers. It is operationally important to determine if the LLC is member-managed or manager-managed and, if the latter, to identity of the managers. Can the assignee work with these persons? Are they professional and competent? What is their track record?

(5) Member List. LLCs are required to keep current lists of members, their respective interests in the company, and a list of all contributions to the company. BOC Sections 101.501(a)(1)-(7). Fellow members of a smaller LLC are effectively your partners in the enterprise. It is good to know to know something about them.

(6) Contracts and Agreements with Third Parties. Any agreements with third parties that affect control, management, or operation of the LLC should be examined. Examples would be contracts with vendors or a property management agreement with a third-party management company. Is the LLC currently part of a joint venture with a different group of investors?

(7) Voting Agreements. These may or may not exist. Any one or more of the members may enter into voting agreements (including but not limited to proxies and pledges) that can affect control of the entity.

(8) Federal Tax Returns. Tax returns are important to verify how the LLC is taxed and how ownership is reported to the IRS. Tax returns and LLC records should be consistent in this respect. It is a good idea for a prospective assignee to have a CPA review the company’s tax returns.

(9) Texas Annual Filings. A prospective assignee should review the franchise tax returns and public information reports (PIRs) that must be annually filed with the comptroller’s office. Do these accurately reflect the LLC’s affairs? Are they diligently prepared and timely filed?

(10) Transactional Records. What property does the LLC own? Are warranty deeds in the name of the LLC duly recorded in the real property records? How are properties managed and who is responsible for doing so? What do the files and records look like—are they orderly or are they a mess? And what about completeness? Do files for rental properties contain all essential documents like warranty deeds, notes and loan agreements, deeds of trust, leases, appraisals, maintenance records, and so on? A specific person should be responsible for keeping such records at a designated location.

(11) Salaries, Draws, and Distributions. These should be examined to discover if there is a pattern of excessive or erratic compensation to managers or distributions to members. Is there a coherent schedule or plan? Are measures in place to insure that the LLC maintains sufficient working capital to fund existing and planned operations?

(12) Bank and Depository Accounts. Current and recent copies of account statements should be examined. Look for any unusual withdrawals or capital flows. Is the LLC adequately capitalized? Does it have an adequate capital reserve? Inadequate capitalization is the number one cause of small business failure.

(13) Records of Pending, Prospective, and Resolved Legal Actions. Is the LLC being sued? Has it been sued in the past? Do the managers have a history of shoddy or deceptive dealings? Is the LLC continually receiving DTPA notice letters from attorneys? Default letters from HOAs or appraisal districts? Does the company charter get periodically revoked (and then have to be reinstated) because the LLC fails to timely file its franchise tax return or PIR? Consider meeting with the LLC’s attorney and CPA. Require that confidentiality be waived in order to get a frank assessment of the situation.

(14) Best Practices Generally. It is important to ascertain whether or not the LLC is run with diligence, integrity, and in compliance with applicable law. What is the company culture with regard to best practices? Does the LLC have a regular business attorney and CPA to advise the managers? Or do the managers wing it on a DIY basis most of the time, counting on a surging market to cover their mistakes?

(15) Reputational Evidence. A prospective assignee may want to do some digging in order to evaluate the business and personal reputations of the managers and members. What is their professional history? The personal lives of the existing members may also be relevant: are any of them getting a divorce from a spouse who might turn into a hostile party? Was one of them just expelled from the country club for non-payment of dues? An internet search is, of course, the bare minimum but it may also be prudent to consider a private investigator (These are not just for the movies).

(16) Company Performance. How have the LLC’s investments fared, particularly over the last three years? What do the company accounts show and are these numbers verifiable? Does the spreadsheet match up with the checkbook?

Trends are an important part of value analysis. Try to reduce the LLC’s quarterly and annual results to line graphs for income and costs. Which way are these factors trending?

(17) Business Plan. Do the managers and members have specific goals or is their strategy more built around finding targets of investment opportunity? Is their plan realistic or pie-in-the-sky? What will the company likely look like in three years? Five years? Is a change in direction required?

The importance of thorough due diligence conducted during an adequate inspection period cannot be understated. Knowledge, as they say, is power. If one must sign a confidentiality or non-disclosure agreement in order to get relevant information on the LLC and its members, then that is what should be done.


Assignments of Interest Generally

All assignments of interest (regardless of the interest assigned) include—or should include—certain common clauses and provisions. After identifying the parties and the exact interest to be assigned, the document should state the consideration being paid; whether the consideration is nominal, cash, or a financed amount (secured or unsecured); recite both transfer and acceptance language; state whether the assignment is made entirely “as is” or instead with representations and warranties; state whether the assignee will have any recourse in the event certain post-assignment conditions are not met and identify the recourse mechanism; recite covenants and agreements of both parties that will result in the implementation of the transfer along with remedies for default if these measures are not carried out; a mutual indemnity clause; any special provisions agreed to by the parties; an alternative dispute resolution (mandatory mediation) clause; and conclude with various miscellaneous provisions that identify applicable law and venue, advise all parties to consult an attorney, set an effective date, and so forth.

A “Consent of Non-Member Spouses” should be appended if applicable. Exhibits to the assignment (pertaining to company assets and liabilities, for instance) may also be needed.

Representations and Warranties

An assignment may include a full set of representations and warranties (“reps and warranties”), limited reps and warranties, or no reps and warranties at all—in which case the assignment is made entirely as is and (in such cases) is almost always without recourse, meaning there is no defined remedy against the assignor-seller if the LLC membership goes sour for some reason. Representations and warranties may be made by assignor, assignee, both, or neither.

Core reps and warranties are basic assurances to which no reasonable party should object. Reps and warranties can get much more detailed and extensive from there. If attorneys are involved, the reps and warranties section of a contract may be heavily negotiated.

The assignor-seller’s goal is to minimize post-closing liability by transferring the membership interest “as is” to the maximum extent by including only a minimum number of reps and warranties. It should be noted that inclusion of the above-mentioned core items does not impair the ability of an assignor to assign an interest “as is.” For this reason, it is always somewhat suspicious when an assignor refuses to give any reps or warranties at all.

The assignee-buyer instead prefers a longer and more specific list of reps and warranties on the part of the assignor-seller. One of the goals of the assignee in the due diligence process is to ascertain, to the greatest extent practicable, the accuracy of reps and warranties that have been or will be made by the seller.

Examples of Reps and Warranties

Examples of basic reps and warranties would include assurances that each party, if a registered entity, is in good standing; the party has power and authority to enter into the transaction without joinder of others; and there exists no condition or circumstance that would render the transaction illegal or invalid or place the party in breach of an existing contract. Additional near-core items would include assurances that each party has performed adequate due diligence and has consulted an attorney before signing.

Both assignor and assignee should also want to include a statement that neither party is making or relying upon any reps or warranties that are not expressly set forth in the assignment. The goal is to prevent anyone from assuming anything or alleging that certain assurances were oral or implied.

Reps and Warranties: Duration and Default

Once reps and warranties are negotiated, it must be determined how long they will survive closing—if at all. 30 days? 90 days? Indefinitely?

A final issue in this area has to do with remedies for default in the event of breach. Attorneys frequently include a clause requiring that such default be a material (rather than a trivial) breach in order to be legally actionable. The issue is then raised, how does one define material? One method is to impose a monetary floor, e.g., by confining assignor liability to issues that result in a loss or cost of (say) $10,000 or more.

Assignments Made “As Is”

As noted, an assignor-seller can include basic (limited) representations and warranties and still convey an LLC membership interest “as is.” Many business persons, including lawyers, do not adequately understand this. For example, stating that one has sufficient power and authority to enter into a transaction does not suggest any representation or warranty as to the item being conveyed. It is a core representation that should probably be included in every assignment.

The key to protecting the assignor is a thorough “as is” clause. Just as is true with real estate conveyances, the more thorough and extensive the “as is” clause, the better. One-liners will generally not do. This is particularly true if there have been oral or email negotiations over a period of weeks or months. The goal should be not only to convey the interest “as is” but also to entirely exclude any statement that cannot be expressly found in writing within the four corners of the assignment instrument.

Covenants and Agreements of the Parties

Covenants and agreements address the legal obligations of the parties going forward—specifically what actions they are required to take in order to implement the assignment. Covenants and agreements of the assignor-seller would include, for example, an obligation to promptly endorse and deliver to the assignee-buyer any certificates evidencing the membership interest in question.

The assignee-buyer should also covenant and agree to abide by the company agreement and other governing documents. Since Texas is a community property state, the spouse of a new assignee should also be asked to sign off on this commitment. The best practice is to secure the signatures of both the new assignee and any non-member spouse not only on the assignment but on the company agreement itself.

Additional covenants and agreements of the parties may be (and usually are) included. This is another area that is subject to extensive negotiation and customization to the circumstances.

Recourse by Assignee upon Occurrence of Specified Conditions

The option for some form of limited or conditional recourse may be included in any assignment of interest. In the case of an LLC membership interest, the assignment could provide that, upon occurrence of certain conditions, the assignee would have the right to re-convey the membership interest and receive return of all or part of the consideration. Examples of such conditions would be any adverse event—a negative outcome in a pending lawsuit or zoning proceeding; condemnation of certain LLC property; failure of a pending joint venture; or the discovery that any representations or warranties of assignor were materially false or deceptive when made. The availability of a recourse mechanism is generally time-limited, say for 90 days after closing. Some assignments might also refer to this recourse mechanism as a right to rescind.

In any assignment instrument, the alternative to full or limited recourse is no recourse at all by the assignee-buyer. For example, real estate notes are often sold without (either full or limited) recourse against the assignor-seller in the event that the borrower on the note defaults. In such a case, absent any provision for recourse, the assignee-buyer of the note would then be in possession of a non-performing asset. The remedy is not against the assignor, but to pursue the debtor directly.

Mutual Indemnity

Ideally, and unless there are special circumstances, the assignor and assignee should release and indemnify one another for LLC-related actions, claims, liabilities, and obligations occurring before and after (respectively) the effective date of the assignment. Indemnity provisions are useful and worthwhile, but one needs to clearly understand their limitations. They are not a covenant not to sue.

Non-Compete and Non-Disclosure Provisions

Sale by a departing LLC member to another member may raise concerns that the departing member will utilize proprietary and confidential information in order to compete with the company in the same line of business within the same geographical area. Agreements regarding intellectual property and non-competition are typically stand-alone full-length contracts; nevertheless, it is possible to include compact and enforceable IP and non-compete provisions that fit smoothly and purposefully into a sale and assignment of LLC membership interest. Failing to do this can be an error with serious consequences.

Corporate Transparency Act and FinCEN Reporting

The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), an arm of the Treasury Department, is charged with rulemaking to enforce the Corporate Transparency Act which was passed in 2021. The CTA contains sweeping requirements regarding the reporting of beneficial interests in LLCs and corporations.

To the extent that a sale and assignment of LLC membership interest constitutes a change in beneficial ownership, then a report to FinCEN will likely be required. The assignment instrument should expressly address the applicability of the CTA and designate which party (usually the assignee) will be responsible for filing a supplemental FinCEN report.

If the burden of FinCEN reporting falls on the assignee, then the assignor may want to include an indemnity clause for added protection. The assignor may also want to limit liability for past FinCEN reporting.

Alternative Dispute Resolution: Mandatory Mediation

Since we live in a litigation nation, it is highly advisable to include a provision that requires mediation prior to commencing legal action. Approximately 80% of mediations result in a settlement. In other words, mediation works, at least most of the time.

A mediation clause should require the conflicting parties to first confer in good faith and attempt to resolve the dispute in a way that accommodates the legitimate interests of both sides. If agreement is reached, it should be reduced to a signed writing and implemented. If not, the parties should then agree to formally mediate the dispute before a certified mediator prior to resorting to litigation or filing any complaint with a governmental or administrative agency.

A mandatory mediation provision should also state where the mediation will be held (which city or county) and for how long (mediations are usually either a half-day or a full day). Each party should commit to bearing its own fees and costs until the mediation is concluded.

Special Provisions and Stipulations

It is useful to include a catch-all special provisions section that allows room for terms that may be specific to the subject transaction and its unique circumstances. These special agreements and provisions frequently arise and this is the place to insert them.

Stipulations are a slightly different concept. For example, an assignment of LLC membership interest may involve a new list of members. It may also require a re-allocation of percentage interests among the remaining members. So it may be beneficial to include a stipulation that after conclusion of the assignment, the new membership list (with accompanying revised percentage interests) will be as described in Exhibit A. This usefully erases any doubt as to the overall final outcome of the transaction.

As previously noted, a special meeting of members is an important companion document to the assignment of LLC membership interest. The meeting, signed by all affected parties, can not only approve the assignment but mention issues such as record date, a general ratification of the assignment and the new member list, and also authorize issuance of new membership certificates.

No Reliance and No Representation Clauses

The assignor-seller (in particular) may want to make it clear that the assignment is made and accepted by the assignee-buyer only after a proper due-diligence investigation and without reliance on any statements or assurances (especially oral ones) made by the assignor-seller or its agents.

Wrap-Up Provision Relating to Execution and Delivery of Documents and Records

It would be an oversight if an assignment of LLC membership interest failed to mention possession and delivery of company books and records, an omission that has resulted in more than a few lawsuits. An agreement to execute and deliver such additional and further documents as may be reasonably necessary to effectuate the purposes of the assignment should cover and include any affected LLC records, including the company book and accounting records. These may need to be transferred to a new assignee-owner or returned to the assignor-seller after due-diligence inspection.

Clients often do not understand why a sale and assignment of LLC membership interest cannot be a simple, one-page document. It is hoped that this article will clarify the answer to that question.


Information in this article is provided for general informational and educational purposes only and is not offered as legal advice upon which anyone may rely. The law changes. No attorney-client relationship is created by the offering of this article. This firm does not represent you unless and until it is expressly retained in writing to do so. Legal counsel relating to your individual needs and circumstances is advisable before taking any action that has legal consequences. Consult your tax advisor as well.

Copyright © 2024 by David J. Willis. All rights reserved. Mr. Willis is board certified in both residential and commercial real estate law by the Texas Board of Legal Specialization. More information is available at his website,